Can't log in on first start after following official guide

I’m setting up a new VM in Proxmox, using the minimal 23.05 ISO installer and following the official installation instructions. It’s all pretty straightforward, except that after setting the new root password and rebooting at the very end, the root password does not work to log in, either as root or as nixos. I tried this twice with different passwords.

Comparing with Cannot login as root after fresh installation suggests it may be some kind of weird problem with resetting /etc/shadow. My configuration.nix does not set users.mutableUsers at all, so I don’t know why this would happen.

I suppose I should really just drop in an SSH key and call it good, but this bizarre malfunction puzzles me.